Thursday, May 21, 2020

Definition and Examples of Irregular Verbs

In English grammar, an irregular verb (pronounced i-REG-u-lur verb) is a  verb that does not follow the usual rules for verb forms. Also known as a strong verb. Verbs in English are irregular if they dont have the  conventional -ed ending (such as asked or ended) in the past tense and/or past participle forms. Contrast with regular verb. According to the 2002 edition of the book,  Longman Student Grammar, the nine most common  lexical verbs  in English are all irregular:  say, get, go, know, think, see, make, come, and  take. Exercises Exercise in Using the Correct Forms of Irregular VerbsPractice in Using the Past Forms of Regular and Irregular VerbsProofreading for Tense Errors Examples and Observations Sheila Watson The bridge they built brought traffic in both directions. Water slopping from the buckets froze on the feet as it fell. Bo Links He said Roadmap Jenkins got the good loops because he knew the yardage and read the break better than anyone else. George H. Devol Hearts were trumps. I stood, and made three to his nothing. I dealt; he begged; I gave him one, and made three more. Muriel Spark It was true, thought Miss Taylor, that the young nurses were less jolly since Sister Burstead had taken over the ward. 180 Cussed Exceptions According to Steven Pinker, Candian-born American experimental psychologist, At first glance irregular verbs would seem to have no reason to live. Why should language have forms that are just cussed exceptions to a rule?.... Irregular forms are just words. If our language faculty has a knack for memorizing words, it should have no inhibitions about memorizing past-tense forms at the same time. These are the verbs we call irregular, and they are a mere 180 additions to a mental lexicon that already numbers in the tens or hundreds of thousands. The Origin of Irregular Verbs According to Bernard ODwyer, grammar textbook writer, [I]rregular verbs...derive from the Old English period. At that time they were called strong and weak verbs respectively. Strong verbs formed their past tense and past participle with an ablaut or vowel gradation (a means of marking different functions of a word by varying the vowel sound in its base). Weak verbs formed their past tense and past participle with an inflectional suffix, that is, a {-d} or {-t} suffix. With the loss of inflections during the Middle English period, all new verbs took on the weak verb formation with an {-ed} or {-t} in past forms. This weak formation soon became the norm for what we now refer to as English regular verbs; strong verbs became irregular verbs. Pam Peters, emeritus professor at Macquarie University in Australia says, In modern English there are roughly half that number, in classes which overlap and have deviant internal groups, and in addition, a number of weak verbs have joined the class of irregular verbs. The Comprehensive Grammar of English, (1985) presents seven classes of irregular verbs, five of them with subgroups. The total membership of the modern irregular verb system is a question of criteria, depending on whether you include: i) verbs which are conjugated both regularly and irregularly ii) verbs which are prefixed or compounded forms of monomorphemic irregular verbs iii) verbs which fall into the category of old-fashioned or archaic English To provide maximum help—and to avoid prejudging such issues—the Comprehensive Grammar (QGLS) presents a list of 267 irregular verbs, but it shrinks to about 150 if you apply all three criteria just mentioned. The Future of Irregular Verbs Steven Pinker weighs in on irregular verbs: Do irregular verbs have a future? At first glance, the prospects do not seem good. Old English had more than twice as many irregular verbs as we do today. As some of the verbs became less common, like cleave-clove, abide-abode, and geld-gelt, children failed to memorize their irregular forms and applied the -ed rule instead (just as today children are apt to say winded and speaked). The irregular forms were doomed for these childrens children and for all subsequent generations (though some of the dead irregulars have left souvenirs among the English adjectives, like cloven, cleft, shod, gilt, and pent). Not only is the irregular class losing members by emigration, it is not gaining new ones by immigration. When new verbs enter English via onomatopoeia (to ding, to ping), borrowings from other languages (deride and succumb from Latin), and conversions from nouns (fly out), the regular rule has first dibs on them. The language ends up with dinged, pinged, derided, succumbed, and flied out, not dang, pang, derode, succame, or flew out. But many of the irregulars can sleep securely, for they have two things on their side. One is their sheer frequency in the language. The ten commonest verbs in English (be, have, do, say, make, go, take, come, see, and get) are all irregular, and about 70% of the time we use a verb, it is an irregular verb. And children have a wondrous capacity for memorizing words; they pick up a new one every two hours, accumulating 60,000 by high school. Eighty irregulars are common enough that children use them before they learn to read, and I predict they will stay in the language indefinitely. A New Strong Verb in English Author Kate Burridge says, The magazine Ozwords published by the Australian National Dictionary Centre has confirmed something that Ive suspected for some time—snuck as the past tense of sneak is now more usual than sneaked.... It is always good news to hear of a successful new strong verb in English! Fewer than 60 of the original 350 strong verbs remain—and even this very small number includes many rather dodgy ones like glide/glode, beseech/besaught, cleave/cleft/cloven, beget/begat/begotten, chide/chid/chidden, slay/slew/slain and smite/smote/smitten. Hardly part of a Modern English speakers active vocabulary! So you can see that a new strong verb like sneak/snuck is a cause for celebration—that is, if you are worried about the extinction of forms like glide/glode. The Lighter Side of Irregular Verbs From the Verbs Is Funny poem: A boy who swims may say he swum, But milk is skimmed and seldom skum, And nails you trim; they are not trum.   When words you speak, these words are spoken, But a nose is tweaked and cant be twoken. And what you seek is seldom soken. If we forget, then weve forgotten, But things we wet are never wotten, And houses let cannot be lotten. The things one sells are always sold, But fog dispelled are not dispold, And what you smell is never smold. When young, a top you oft saw spun, But did you see a grin ever grun, Or a potato neatly skun? Sources Anonymous. Verbs Is Funny. Biber, Douglas. Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. 1st ed, TBS, 2002. Burridge,  Kate. Gift of the Gob: Morsels of English Language History. ABC Books Australia, 2011. Devol, George H.,  Forty Years a Gambler on the Mississippi. 1st ed, 1887. Links, Bo.  Riverbank Tweed and Roadmap Jenkins: Tales From the Caddie Yard. Simon Schuster, 2001. ODwyer, Bernard T. Modern English Structures: Form, Function, and Position. 2nd ed, Broadview Press, 2006. Spark,  Muriel. Memento Mori. Macmillian, 1959. Peters, Pam. American and British Influence in Australian Verb Morphology.  Creating and Using English Language Corpora: Papers From the Fourteenth International Conference on English Language and Research on Computerized Corpora, Zurich 1993. edited by Udo Fries, Gunnel Tottie, and Peter Schneider. Rodopi, 1994. Pinker, Steven. Quoted by Lewis Burke Frumkes in  Favorite Words of Famous People: A Celebration of Superior Words From Writers, Educators, Scientists, and Humorists. Marion Street Press, 2011. Pinker,  Steven. Words and Rules. Basic Books,1999. Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, et al. Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman, 1989. Watson,  Sheila. Deep Hollow Creek. McClelland Stewart, 1992.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of Gwen Harwood s Poetry - 1944 Words

Gwen Harwood, a contemporary female poet, born in Brisbane Australia in the 1920 s, wrote her poetry during a time where Australian society held dominant gender ideologies that focused on domesticating women. A widely held belief of a passive, nurturing mother figure who looked after her children and complied with her duties as a house-wife , whilst men were viewed as the sole source of income and had a minimal nurturing role with children, was shared, along with ideas of male superiority, and of masculine qualities being superior to feminine qualities, both of which were only expected to be embodied by males and females respectively. The construction of people, places and institutions through poetic conventions in Harwood s poetry allows the audience to identify these cultural beliefs in conventional gender roles and expectations within 1950 s Australian society in particular. These constructions critique the attitudes and values of the time, especially where women are concerned, a nd thus position the audience to reject the patriarchal assumptions of the time. Her poems Suburban Sonnet and Prize Giving are can be perceived as radical interpretations and criticisms of the views of the time they were written in, and attest to Harwood s own beliefs of female independence and placing value on feminine and masculine roles and qualities equally. Harwood grew up with the main female figures in her life being her mother and grandmother, who were both very independent; herShow MoreRelatedGwen Harwood1749 Words   |  7 Pagesreligion and language, Gwen had many early influences in her childhood that were clearly going to have an effect on her later life. Gwens family had strong connections with music and it became a very important part of her life, causing her to aspire to become a musician. Gwens grandmother introduced her to poetry and she began to write her own in the 1950s. Soon after, she learnt the German language to establish a wider reading of poetry and invo lve the language in her own works. Gwen married a linguistRead MoreShould Female Contruction Workers Earn the Same Wages as Male2427 Words   |  10 Pagesvulnerability as the first and last instances of any explanation of rape is to make the identity of rapist and raped pre-exist rape itself (Wadlby). The point to consider is that Freuds account incest Until very recently around early part of 1970s, the sexual assault of children within their families was rarely openly discussed until the emergence of the second wave of feminism. Incest ... of sexuality may have normalized heterosexuality and the positions it offers for its subjects but it did

Science Laboratory Report Free Essays

The results of the lab were very accurate because the r action of the enzymes in hot water were actually very quick and in cold water the enzyme mess seemed to react very slow. Background: So far from what we have learned from 3. 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Science Laboratory Report or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1 about enzymes is that they are substances that produce a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring a SP specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes are very important because they control the s peed of chemical reactions in the body, but also enzymes are made out of amino acid s and have a lock and key basics. What this does is that it lock the enzymes and the key substance and the only way it will react is by inducing the correct substrate, which plays a role in determining the final shape of the enzyme and so the enzyme partially flexible. Chemical digestion is a process in which food is being broken down by chemic in our bodies like saliva and enzymes. Besides their being enzymes there are also consumes which support the functions of enzymes, they loosely bind to enzyme mess to help them complete their activities, they are nonprofit, and they are organic molecules. Our goal in the experiment was to see the different reaction that happen to enzymes while being at different temperatures. For an example when we did the lab we saw that the pressure in warm water was high which lets us know that enzyme nature at a warm temperature, and we placed some ice on the beaker the temperature began to decrease and when we took the pressure, the result SSH owed that the enzymes reacted very slow which seems to give us a very obvious result. When enzymes are in a cold temperature they tend to have less energy and have a I ate reaction. Hypothesis: My hypothesis on this experiment was that enzymes would move very fast in warm temperature and that in a cold temperature the enzymes would be MO vying slow or like being stiff and that their reaction would decrease from what it would reach at a high temperature. Materials and Methods: 1. Use a 600 ml beaker and fill it up with warm water up 250 ml. 2. Use a thermometer that measures in Celsius, take the temperature of the water, results should be around 19 co 3. SE a hot plate and heat it up to a low temperature and then place the beaker with the thermometer on the hot plate and let it sit their for 5 minutes 4. After 5 minutes have passed remove the beaker from the hot plate take a look at your experiment, the temperature of the water should’ve gone up unlike the group, their results were chic 5. Avian the beaker removed from the hot plate, make sure you get a flask that is 125 ml. 6. Fill the flask with 50 ml of hydrogen peroxide and place it inside the 600 ml b eaker. 7. Once you have done that use the fernier to measure the gas pressure 8. You need to connect the USB cable to your computer and the other end of the cable connect it to the labiates box and connect the cable to channel 1 9. After connecting the gas pressure sensor open the program on your computer and make sure you’re starting off with a blank graph 10. Then grab the gas pressure sensor and connect it to labiates box with a lack cable. After doing that grab the valve and the rubber stopper. 11. Once you have everything connected the fernier use a microcomputer that measures 2020041 12. SE a pipette and put it on the microcomputer and absorb 10041 of catalyst 13. Poor the amount of catalyst in the in the flask and quickly and cover the flask with the rubber stopper. 14. Make sure you put pressure on the rubber stopper and click the green button on the computer which begins to graph. 15. You should only do this for 200 seconds and wants you’re done you click on t he red icon which means stop and then print out your results. 16. You Should now do a cold water bath and to be able to do this you need ice and fresh new enzymes and hydrogen peroxide. Make sure you dump out all the liquids you used and get fresh ones. 17. Remember thou should fill the beaker with 250 ml of cold water and pour 50 ml of hydrogen peroxide in the flask. You should have some ice and put some in the beaker and take the temperature of the cold ice water, you should NOT use the hydrogen peroxide yet. 18. After 5 minutes the temperature that the group recorded at first, was ICC Make sure you record your results 20. After taking the temperature of the water. Owe you should take the hydrogen peroxide and get it close to the temperature of the water. 1 . 19. Get the flask that contains the hydrogen peroxide and place it back In the beaker, let it sit there for about 10 minutes. 22. When 10 minutes have passed you should now use the fernier and repeat steps 715 again. Rest Its: The results of this experiment was that the enzymes react very slow in cold w eater and that in hot water the enzymes have more energy and are able to move m such faster. The slope in t he graph for hot water was y=0. 0119 and so that was the change e for every second and the slope for cold water was 0. 03 which lets you know that the c hanger in both slopes was decreased from what you can see, Results of the different temperatures in Celsius cold water coco hot water coco cold ice water cold ice water beaker/flask Discussion: We already know that enzymes denature do to the type of temperature there at The results of the graph for hot and cold water show that the pressure thee r is when the enzyme is found at a hot or cold temperature. The important liquids that we used in this experiment was O 2 ( hydrogen peroxide) and the catalyst. The enzymes destroy hydrogen peroxide by breaking it down. How to cite Science Laboratory Report, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Personal success free essay sample

To be successful in life is something every person wishes for. How one becomes successful is defined differently by each individual. Achieving success is not only about how much money one makes as many might believe. Although, to be financially stable is one part of my definition of success, my personal definition also includes many other aspects of life that are important to me. For me, success is really the satisfaction with which I am today and the commitment to continue to grow. As I continue to grow as a person, I think years down the road I will consider my life a complete success. Earning my GED a year after I dropped out of high school was a success to me, even though some thought I was smart enough to graduate rather than achieve the equivalency. I will continue to make mistakes and I will continue to learn from those mistakes. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal success or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Knowing that I am capable of accomplishing anything I put my mind to is my motivation to continue my education. Registering in 2010 at SBC, then dropping out was a complete failure, but my reasons were more important to me at that time. As time went on I realized that I should have stuck it out and continued attending my courses. Then I would have been further in my academics and that is a lesson that one of life’s stepping stones has brought me. Never give up! My current academic achievement has just begun and I am content with where I’m at now than I was two years ago. As long as I’m content and happy with what I’m doing then I will continue to better my education until I earn my degree. Helping others in need when that need is achievable for me is success. To have healthy relationships with my family, friends, and my significant other are my views of personal success. To keep learning, trying new things, and hopefully growing wiser in the process. If I can look back at my life and be happy with the choices I have made, respect who I have become, feel proud of how I have treated others then I will feel that satisfaction of success. To look in the mirror having peace of mind and honestly say to myself that I have enjoyed the journey that life has bestowed upon me then what a success I will be.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Introduction to Gross Domestic Product

Introduction to Gross Domestic Product In order to analyze the health of an economy or examine economic growth, its necessary to have a way to measure the size of an economy. Economists usually measure the size of an economy by the amount of stuff it produces. This makes sense in a lot of ways, mainly because an economys output in a given period of time is equal to the economys income, and the economys level of income is one of the main determinants of its standard of living and societal welfare. It may seem strange that output, income, and expenditure (on domestic goods) in an economy are all the same quantity, but this observation is simply the result of the fact that there is both a buying and a selling side to every economic transaction. For example, if an individual bakes a loaf of bread and sells it for $3, he has created $3 of output and made $3 in income. Similarly, the buyer of the loaf of bread spent $3, which counts in the expenditure column. The equivalence between overall output, income and expenditure is simply a result of this principle aggregated over all of the goods and services in an economy. Economists measure these quantities using the concept of Gross Domestic Product. Gross domestic product, commonly referred to as GDP, is the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time. Its important to understand precisely what this means, so its worth giving some thought to each of the definitions components: GDP Uses Market Value Its pretty easy to see that it doesnt make sense to count an orange the same in GDP as a television, nor does it make sense to count the television the same as a car. The GDP calculation accounts for this by adding up the market value of each good or service rather than adding up the quantities of the goods and services directly. Although adding up market values solves an important problem, it can also create other calculation problems. One problem arises when prices change over time since the basic GDP measure doesnt make it clear whether changes are due to actual changes in output or just changes in prices. (The concept of real GDP is an attempt to account for this, however.) Other problems can arise when new goods enter the market or when technology developments make goods both higher quality and less expensive. GDP Counts Market Transactions Only In order to have a market value for a good or service, that good or service has to be bought and sold in a legitimate market. Therefore, only goods and services that are bought and sold in markets count in GDP, even though there may be a lot of other work being done and output being created. For example, goods and services produced and consumed within a household dont count in GDP, even though they would count if the goods and services were brought to the marketplace. In addition, goods and services transacted in illegal or otherwise illegitimate markets dont count in GDP. GDP Only Counts Final Goods There are many steps that go into the production of virtually any good or service. Even with an item as simple as a $3 loaf of bread, for example, the price of the wheat used for the bread is perhaps 10 cents, the wholesale price of the bread is maybe $1.50, and so on. Since all of these steps were used to create something that was sold to the consumer for $3, there would be a lot of double counting if the prices of all of the intermediate goods were added into GDP. Therefore, goods and services are only added into GDP when they have reached their final point of sale, whether that point is a business or a consumer. An alternate method of calculating GDP is to add up the value added at each stage in the production process. In the simplified bread example above, the wheat grower would add 10 cents to GDP, the baker would add the difference between the 10 cents of the value of his input and the $1.50 value of his output, and the retailer would add the difference between the $1.50 wholesale price and the $3 price to the end consumer. Its probably not surprising that the sum of these amounts equals the $3 price of the final bread. GDP Counts Goods at the Time They Are Produced GDP counts the value of goods and services at the time they are produced, not necessarily when they are officially sold or resold. This has two implications. First, the value of used goods that are resold doesnt count in GDP, though a value-added service associated with reselling the good would be counted in GDP. Second, goods that are produced but not sold are viewed as being purchased by the producer as inventory and thus counted in GDP when they are produced. GDP Counts Production Within an Economy's Borders The most notable recent change in measuring an economys income is the switch from using gross national product to using Gross Domestic Product. In contrast to gross national product, which counts the output of all of an economys citizens, Gross Domestic Product counts all output that is created within the borders of the economy regardless of who produced it. GDP Is Measured Over a Specific Period of Time Gross Domestic Product is defined over a specific period of time, whether it be a month, a quarter, or a year. Its important to keep in mind that, while the level of income is certainly important to the health of an economy, its not the only thing that matters. Wealth and assets, for example, also have a significant effect on the standard of living, since people not only buy new goods and services but also get enjoyment from using the goods that they already own.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Superb electric cars you should know about

Superb electric cars you should know about 5 coolest electric cars in the world No doubt, electric cars can be called the automobiles of the future. Though a lot of people only start to accept these vehicles, trying to make a step forward from petrol consuming cars. The industry develops greatly and there are a lot of descent representatives among the electric cars range, which will astonish you and will not leave you indifferent. Our nature friendly future welcomes such cars and we suggest you to reveal all design and functionality options of these progressive cars. Tesla Model X A lot of specialists consider this car the coolest for now. Tesla Model X has outstanding design; its Falcon Wing doors give it special elegancy and refinement. The interior attracts its buyers with the windshield, which is panoramic, and touch screen for functions controlling. There are three models of this car available: Model 75D, Model 90D and Model P90D. All of them have two engines and differ in battery capacity and engine power. The car can have five, six or seven seats and its price range is from 132 to 142 thousand dollars. However, Tesla Inc. already plans issue of new breakthrough model in 2019. So, let’s arm ourselves with patience and see what the company has designed for customers and whether it can surprise us. Audi R8 e-tron Cool design of this car can hardly leave someone without interest. Two electric engines, which total capacity reach more than 450 horsepower, make it possible to move with 280 kilometers per hour. Huge lithium-ion battery is located in the bottom of the car and makes it possible to have rides with the 450 kilometers without additional charging, in comparison to 215 kilometers, which could drive its predecessor. The car’s charging station requires only two hours for charging the battery. The functional capabilities and outstanding design make this car a superb model for those, who want to own an electric car. Renovo Motors Coupe Designers of the Renovo Coupe developed design of this car similar to sport car exterior of the 60-70th. The retro style, combined with the classical interior, makes this car unique and not alike others. The classical interior is distinguished by the liquid-crystal control panel and astonishes with its luxury style. Electric engine of the Renovo Coupe has the 500 horsepower capacity and enables to pick-up the speed from 0 to 100 kilometers per hour in 3-4 seconds. The maximal speed of the car equals 194 kilometers per hour, which is quite impressive, taking into account the heavy weight of the car. The approximate price of the car is about 529,000 dollars and for sure it will be available to a limited number of people, but driving this car will be a great experience for any of us. Morgan EV3 The car is made by the British constructors and represents by itself an untypical automobile. You can drive almost 240 kilometers without charging and pick up to 145 kilometers per hour. If you want to be an owner of such unusual car, be ready to spend from 40,000 to 50,000 dollars. The only thing you should bear in mind is that this automobile has no top. So there can be two options, drive this car only when the weather is fine or get adjusted to any weather conditions. Honda CR-Z prototype This electric car is distinguished from the above mentioned cars by its four engines, which together make 450 horsepower.   The car is extremely fast and is designed for sport racings. Thus, in 2015 the car won the 11th place in overall and first in the Exhibition Class at the Pike’s Peak International Hill Climb. However, the idea with four engines is great; it still requires some improvements and modifications. Presumably, Honda will deal with this question in the nearest future. Apparently, these are the coolest electric automobiles nowadays. Unfortunately, they are unavailable for ordinary people, who ride bikes to work or students, who have a lot of concerns with their academic papers and limited budget. Anyhow, follow the latest researches and constructions and you never know, maybe tomorrow you will be driving one of those cuties.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Random Walk Theory of Share Price Movements Essay

Random Walk Theory of Share Price Movements - Essay Example A lot many efforts were made towards identifying a predictable trading pattern which could be used for chasing profitable deals. From the mid-1950s to the early 1980s, a random walk theory (RWT) of share prices was developed based on the past empirical evidence of randomness in share price movements. RWT basically stated that speculative price changes were independent and identically distributed, so that the past price data had no predictive power for future share price movements. RWT also stated that the distribution of price changes from transaction to transaction had finite variance. In addition, if transactions were fairly uniformly spread across time and were large in numbers, then the Central Limit Theorem suggested that the price changes would be normally distributed. Kendall (1953) calculated the first differences of twenty-two different speculative price series at weekly intervals from 486 to 2,387 terms. He concluded that the random changes from one term to the next were la rge and obfuscated any systematic effect which may be present. In fact, he stated that 'the data behaved almost like a wandering series' (random walk). Specifically, an analysis of share price movement revealed little serial correlation, with the conclusion that there was very little predictability of movements in share prices for a week ahead without extraneous information. In 1959, Roberts generated a pattern of market levels and changes akin to actual levels and changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Index. He estimated the probability of different share price movements over time by using a frequency distribution of historical changes in the weekly market index, and assumed weekly changes were independently drawn from a normal distribution with a mean of + 0.5 and a standard deviation of 5.0. He concluded that changes in security prices behaved as if they had been generated by a simple chance model .The fundamental concept behind random walk theory is that competition in perfect mar kets would remove excess economic profits, except from those parties who exercised some degree of market monopoly. This meant that a trader with specialized information about future events could profit from the monopolistic access to information, but that fundamental and technical analysts who rely on past information should not expect to have speculative gains.From the theory of random walks arose the theory of efficient markets. The Efficient Markets Hypothesis (EMH) states that current prices always 'fully reflect' available information, so that the only reason prices change between time t and time t+1 is the arrival of new information. The EMH requires that only two necessary conditions be met. First, the market must be aware of all available information .The type of information available is determined by the strength of the EMH being tested. In a Weak Form EMH, current prices entirely reflect all that can be known from the study of historical prices and trading volumes. If the Weak Form is valid, technical